The term is usually applied to the two conflicts of unprecedented scale that occurred during the 20th century: World War I (1914–1918) and World War II (1939–1945). However, it is also sometimes applied to earlier wars and to a hypothetical future war.
Origins of the term
The term World War was coined speculatively in the early 20th century, some years before the First World War broke out, probably as a literal translation of the German word Weltkrieg. German writer August Wilhelm Otto Niemann had used the word in the title of his anti-British novel Der Weltkrieg: Deutsche Träume ("The World War: German Dreams") as early as 1904, published in English as The coming conquest of England. The Oxford English Dictionary cites the first known usage in the English language as being in April 1909, in the pages of the Westminster Gazette.
It was recognized that the complex system of opposing alliances—the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire vs. the French Third Republic, the Russian Empire, and the British Empire was likely to lead to a worldwide conflict in the event of war breaking out. The fact that the powers involved had large overseas empires virtually guaranteed that a war would be worldwide, as the colonies' resources would be a crucial strategic factor. The same strategic considerations also ensured that the combatants would strike at each other's colonies, thus spreading the fighting far more widely than in the pre-colonial era.
Other languages have also adopted the "World War" terminology; for instance, in French, the two World Wars are the Guerres mondiales; in German, the Erste und Zweite Weltkrieg (World War I was only known or commonly recognized in public as der Weltkrieg in Germany when it was over, while prior to the war the word was used in the more abstract meaning of "a global conflict"); in Italian, the Guerra Mondiale; in Russian the мировые войны (miroviye voyni); in Spanish the Guerra Mundial and so on.
The term First World War was used in the book The First World War: A Photographic History, edited by playwright and war veteran Laurence Stallings and published in 1933. The term "World War I" was invented by Time magazine in its issue of June 12, 1939. In that same issue, the term World War II was first used speculatively by Time magazine to describe the upcoming war. The first use for the actual war came in its issue of September 11, 1939. Speculative fiction authors were noting the concept of a Second World War at least as early as 1919 and 1920 , when Milo Hastings wrote his dystopian novel City of Endless Night.
World wars before the 20th century
Before the 20th century, there were a number of wars spanning multiple continents, including:
- the Greco–Persian Wars (499 BC – 449 BC)
- the Wars of Alexander the Great (335 BC – 323 BC)
- the First Punic War (264 BC – 241 BC)
- the Second Punic War (218 BC – 201 BC)
- the Roman–Syrian War (192 BC – 188 BC)
- the Roman–Persian Wars (92 BC – 629 AD)
- the First Mithridatic War (89 BC – 85 BC)
- the Arab–Byzantine wars (629 AD – 1050s AD)
- the Second Crusade (1145 AD – 1149 AD)
- the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars (1265 AD – 1479 AD)
- the Eighty Years' War (1568 AD – 1648 AD)
- the Dutch–Portuguese War (1602 AD – 1663 AD)
- the Nine Years' War (1688 AD – 1697 AD), also called the "War of the Grand Alliance" or "War of the Palatine Succession"
- the War of the Spanish Succession (1701 AD – 1714 AD)
- the War of the Austrian Succession (1740 AD – 1748 AD)
- the Seven Years' War (1754 AD – 1763 AD), which Winston Churchill called "the first world war" in A History of the English-Speaking Peoples
- the American Revolutionary War (1775 AD – 1783 AD)
- the French Revolutionary Wars (1792 AD – 1802 AD)
- the Quasi-War (1798 AD – 1800 AD)
- the Napoleonic Wars (1803 AD – 1815 AD)
- the Crimean War (1853 AD – 1856 AD)
- the Spanish–American War (1898 AD)
Before the late 19th century, the concept of a world war would be the result of military action caused by quarrels between European powers which took place in fairly limited, though sometimes far-flung, theaters of conflict.
World wars of the 20th century
The World Wars of the 20th century took place on almost every populated continent on Earth. Many of the states who fought in the First World War also fought in the Second, although not always on the same sides.
The two World Wars of the 20th century caused unprecedented casualties and destruction across the theaters of conflict. The numbers killed in the wars are estimated at between 60 and 100 million people. Civilians suffered as badly as or worse than soldiers, and the distinction between military combatants and non-combatant civilians was often overlooked or ignored. Both world wars saw large scale murders. The Ottomans were responsible for the death of over one million Armenians. The Nazis were responsible for multiple genocides during the Second World War, most notably the Holocaust. Both the Soviet Union and United States deported and interned minority groups within their own borders, and largely due to this conflict later many ethnic Germans were expelled in much of Eastern Europe. Advances in technology were responsible for a large amount of casualties. The First World War saw major use of chemical weapons. The Second World War was also the first conflict in which nuclear weapons were used, devastating the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
|World War I||World War II|
|Deaths||15 to 20 M||75 M|
|Injured||9 to 15 M||20 M|
|Conscripts||65 M||90 M|
|Battlefield size||3 M km²||17 M km²|
The outcome of the World Wars had a profound effect on the course of world history. The old European empires collapsed or were dismantled as a direct result of the wars' crushing costs and in some cases the defeat of imperial powers. The United States was firmly established as the dominant global power, along with its ideological foe, the Soviet Union, in close competition. These two "superpowers" exerted political influence over most of the world's other states for decades after the end of World War II (ending in the late 1980s in the Soviet Union). The modern international security, economic and diplomatic system was created in the aftermath of the wars. Institutions such as NATO, the United Nations and the European Union were established to "collectivise" international affairs, with the explicit goal of preventing another outbreak of general war. The wars also greatly changed the course of daily life. Technologies developed during wartime had a profound effect on peacetime life as well—for instance, jet aircraft, penicillin, nuclear energy, and electronic computers.
Later world wars
Various former government officials, politicians and authors have attempted to apply the labels of WW III, WW IV, and WW V to various military engagements and diplomatic stand-offs since the close of WWII, such as the Korean War, the Cold War, the Yugoslav wars or the War on Terror. Among these are former American and French government officials James Woolsey and Alexandre de Marenches, author Eliot Cohen and zapatist leader Subcomandante Marcos. Despite their efforts, none of these wars are commonly deemed world wars.
World War III is generally considered a hypothetical successor to World War II and is often suggested to be nuclear, devastating in nature and likely much more violent than both WW I and WW II. This war is anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities, and explored in fiction in many countries. Concepts range from purely conventional scenarios or a limited use of nuclear weapons to the destruction of the planet. World War IV is sometimes mentioned as a hypothetical successor to World War III or as a plot element in books, movies or video games.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary entry for World War". Etymonline.com. 1914-08-02. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- "Ten Million Dead", Time, July 31, 1933.
- "In World War I, for example, command of the air changed hands several times, and the command changed not only when numbers varied but when one side introduced a superior new plane which could outfight the opposing machines." "War Machines", Time, June 12, 1939.
- "In World War II it is possible that even nations who do not take sides may play a vital military part, for they may be invaded." "War Machines", Time, June 12, 1939.
- "World War II began last week at 5:20 a. m. (Polish time) Friday, September 1, when a German bombing plane dropped a projectile on Puck, fishing village and air base in the armpit of the Hel Peninsula." "World War: Grey Friday", Time, September 11, 1939.
- Scanlan, Laura Wolff. "Clash of Empires." Humanities. 2005. HighBeam Research. (May 12, 2012). http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-854018521.html
- "World War IV". 2002. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Woolsey claims victory in WWIII, start of WWIV
- "The Fourth World War: Diplomacy and Espionage....". 1992. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Book regarding alleged WWIV
- "World WarIV: Let's call this conflict what it is.". 2001. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Why war on terrorism should be called WWIV
- The Fourth World War Has Begun by Subcomandante Marcos, trans. Nathalie de Broglio, Neplantla: Views from South, Duke University Press: 2001, Vol. 2 Issue 3: 559-572
- Calaprice, Alice (2005). The new quotable Einstein. Princeton University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-691-12075-7 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]
- "The culture of Einstein". MSNBC. 2005-04-19. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- This is the Fourth World War, an interview with philosopher Jean Baudrillard