A railroad car (U.S. and Canada)[a] or railway vehicle (UK and IUR) is a vehicle used for the carrying of cargo or passengers on a rail transport system (railroad or railway). Such cars, when coupled together and hauled by one or more locomotives, form a train. Alternatively, some passenger cars are self-propelled in which case they may be either single railcars or make up multiple units.
The term car alone is commonly used in American English when a rail context is implicit. Indian English sometimes uses the term bogie, although in other English dialects "bogie" is not used in that sense.
Although some cars exist for the railroad's own use – for track maintenance purposes, for example – most cars carry a revenue-earning load of passengers or freight, and may be divided accordingly between passenger cars (or coaches) on the one hand and freight cars (or wagons) on the other.
In standard-gauge cars, seating is usually configured into ranges of between three and five seats across the width of the car, with an aisle in between (resulting in arrangements of 2+1, 2+2 or 3+2 seats) or at the side. Tables may be provided between seats facing one another. Alternatively, seats facing in the same direction may have access to a fold-down ledge on the back of the seat in front.
- If the aisle is located between seats, seat rows may face the same direction, or be grouped, with twin rows facing each other.
- In some vehicles intended for commuter services, seats are positioned with their backs to the side walls, either on one side or more commonly on both, facing each other across the aisle. This gives a wide accessway and allows room for standing passengers at peak times, as well as improving loading and unloading speeds.
- If the aisle is at the side, the car is usually divided into small compartments. These usually contain six seats, although sometimes in second class they contain eight, and sometimes in first class they contain four.
Passenger cars can take the electricity supply for heating and lighting equipment from either of two main sources: directly from a head end power generator on the locomotive via bus cables, or by an axle-powered generator which continuously charges batteries whenever the train is in motion.
Modern cars usually have either air-conditioning or windows that can be opened (sometimes, for safety, not so far that one can hang out), or sometimes both. Various types of onboard train toilet facilities may also be provided.
Other types of passenger car exist, especially for long journeys, such as the dining car, parlor car, disco car, and in rare cases theater and movie theater car. In some cases another type of car is temporarily converted to one of these for an event.
Observation cars were built for the rear of many famous trains to allow the passengers to view the scenery. These proved popular, leading to the development of dome cars multiple units of which could be placed mid-train, and featured a glass-enclosed upper level extending above the normal roof to provide passengers with a better view.
Sleeping cars outfitted with (generally) small bedrooms allow passengers to sleep through their night-time trips, while couchette cars provide more basic sleeping accommodation. Long-distance trains often require baggage cars for the passengers' luggage. In European practice it used to be common for day coaches to be formed of compartments seating 6 or 8 passengers, with access from a side corridor. In the UK, Corridor coaches fell into disfavor in the 1960s and 1970s partially because open coaches are considered more secure by women traveling alone.
A "trainset" (or "set") is a semi-permanently arranged formation of cars, rather than one created "ad hoc" out of whatever cars are available. These are only broken up and reshuffled 'on shed' (in the maintenance depot). Trains are then built of one or more of these 'sets' coupled together as needed for the capacity of that train.
Often, but not always, passenger cars in a train are linked together with enclosed, flexible gangway connections that can be walked through by passengers and crew members. Some designs incorporate semi-permanent connections between cars and may have a full-width connection, making in essence one longer, flexible 'car'. In North America, passenger equipment also employ tightlock couplings to keep a train reasonably intact in the event of a derailment or other accident.
Many multiple unit trains consist of cars which are semi-permanently coupled into sets; these sets may be joined together to form larger trains, but generally passengers can only move around between cars within a set. This "closed" nature allows the separate sets to be easily split to go separate ways. Some multiple-unit trainsets are designed so that corridor connections can be easily opened between coupled sets; this generally requires driving cabs either set off to the side or (as in the Dutch Koploper) above the passenger compartment. These cabs or driving trailers are also useful for quickly reversing the train.
Freight cars (UK: "wagons" or "trucks") exist in a wide variety of types, adapted to the ideal carriage of a whole host of different things. Originally there were very few types of cars; the boxcar (UK: "van"), a closed box with side doors, was among the first.
- Aircraft Parts Car
- Autorack (also called auto carriers) are specialized multi-level cars designed for transportation of unladen automobiles.
- Boxcar (US), covered wagon (UIC) or van (UIC): box shape with roof and side or end doors.
- CargoSprinter: a self-propelled container flatcar.
- Centerbeam cars
- Coil car: a specialized type of rolling stock designed for the transport of coils of sheet metal, particularly steel. They are considered a subtype of the gondola car, though they bear little resemblance to a typical gondola.
- Conflat (UK): A flat truck for carrying containers.
- Covered wagon (UIC), van (UIC) or boxcar (US): fully enclosed wagon for moisture-susceptible goods.
- Covered hopper: similar to open top hoppers but with a cover for weather and temperature-sensitive loads.
- Double-Stack Car (or well car): specialized cars designed for carrying shipping containers. These have a "well" with a very low bottom floor to allow double stacking.
- Flatcar (or flat): for larger loads that do not load easily into a boxcar. Specialized types such as the depressed-center flatcar (aka "well car") exist for oversize items or the Schnabel car for even larger and heavier loads. With the advent of containerized freight, special types of flatcars were built to carry standard shipping containers and semi-trailers.
- Gondola (US): railroad car with an open top but enclosed sides and ends, for bulk commodities and other goods that might slide off.
- Hicube boxcars
- Hoppers: similar to gondolas but with bottom dump doors for easy unloading of things like coal, ore, grain, cement, ballast and the like. Short hoppers for carrying iron ore are called ore jennys in the US.
- Lorry (US): An open wagon (UIC) or gondola (US) with a tipping trough, often found in mines. See also Tippler.
- Lowmac (UK): A low-floor wagon for carrying machinery.
- Milk car: a tank car for carrying milk.
- Mine car.
- Mine cart.
- Modalohr Road Trailer Carriers.
- Open wagon (UIC): railway wagon with an open top but enclosed sides and ends, for bulk commodities and other goods that might slide off.
- Quarry tub: a type of railway or tramway wagon used in quarries.
- Refrigerator car (or reefer): a refrigerated subtype of boxcar.
- Roll-block: a train designed to carry another railway train.
- Rolling highway: a train designed to carry trucks and/or semi-trailers
- Side Dump Cars: used to transport roadbed materials such as, ballast, riprap, and large stone, and are able to unload anywhere along the track.
- Schnabel car: specialized freight car for heavy or oversized loads.
- Slate wagon: specialized freight cars used to transport slate.
- Spine car, a center sill and side sill only car with lateral arms to support intermodal containers. No deck.
- Stock Car: for the transport of livestock.
- Tank car (US), tank wagon (UIC) (or tanker): for the transportation of liquids or gases.
- Tippler (UK): An open wagon with no doors or roof which are unloaded by being inverted on a Wagon Tippler (UK) or Rotary car dumper (US). They are, used for minerals, such as coal, limestone and iron ore as well as other bulk cargo. See also Lorry.
- Transporter wagon: a wagon designed to carry other railway equipment.
- "Whale Belly" car, a tank car with a "belly".
The vast majority of freight cars fit into the above categories.
American style Hopper Car
U.S. type Boxcar
A DR rail maintenance vehicle converted from a former freight van
- Cabooses (or guard's vans or brakevans) which attach to the rear of freight trains in order to watch the train and assist in shoving moves.
- Clearance car, special car to check for obstructions.
- Handcars, which are powered by their passengers.
- Maintenance of way (MOW) cars, for the maintenance of track and equipment.
- Rail car mover—some of which resemble HiRail trucks.
- Railroad cranes
- Road-rail vehicle
- Scale test car
- Office car which contains a mobile office for a train company.
- Crew car aka Outfit Car or a Camp Car, a bunk car or modular home mounted on a flatcar to house railroad employees.
Military armoured trains use several types of specialized cars:
- artillery: fielding mixture of guns and machine guns
- infantry: fielding machine guns, designed to carry infantry units
- machine gun: dedicated to machine guns
- anti-air: equipped with anti-air guns
- command: similar to infantry wagons, but designed to be a train command center
- anti-tank: equipped with anti-tank guns, usually in a tank gun turret
- platform: unarmoured, with purposes ranging from transport of ammunition or vehicles, through track repair or derailing protection to railroad ploughs for railroad destruction.
- troop sleepers
- DODX is the reporting mark for the United States Department of Defense Military Traffic Management Command.
Mobile missile systems
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded a number of trains that served as mobile missile silos. These trains carried the missile and everything necessary to launch, and were kept moving around the railway network to make them difficult to find and destroy in a first-strike attack. A similar rail-borne system was proposed in the United States of America for the LGM-30 Minuteman in the 1960s, and the LGM-118 Peacekeeper in the 1980s, but neither were deployed. The Strategic Air Command's 1st Combat Evaluation RBS "Express" did deploy from Barksdale Air Force Base with radar bomb scoring units mounted on military railroad cars with supporting equipment, to score simulated thermonuclear bombing of cities in the continental United States.
- In the US, a "railroad car" is often referred to more simply as a "rail car" or "railcar", but this should not be confused with the self-propelled railcar.
- Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary: bogie
- "General Code of Operating Rules: Section 5.12: Protection of Occupied Outfit Cars". Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Index of DODX
- Gen. Thomas S. Power, USAF (September 1960). "Strategic Air Command" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. Retrieved 30 Aug 2010. "A special SAC task force was established at Hill AFB, Utah, to conduct a series of deployments with a Minuteman Mobility Test Train. The first deployment ended June 27 after seven days of random travel over existing civilian rail facilities in the Ogden area. The test series will continue through the fall of 1960 with other rail movements in the Far West and Midwest...."
- "In regards to the SAC radar bomb scoring squadron mounted on railroad cars." (PDF). Mobile Military Radar web site. 22 Feb 2007. pp. 12K. Retrieved 30 Aug 2010. "The trains were 21 cars long, 17 support and 4 radar cars. The radar cars were basically flat cars with the radar vans and equipment mounted on them. The other 17 consisted of a generator car, two box cars (one for radar equipment maintenance, and one for support maintenance). A dining car, two day-room cars, supply cars, admin car, and 4 Pullman sleepers.... The Commander had the very last room on the tail of the train.... The trains would go to some area in the U.S. which was selected for that period by a regular contracted locomotive which then just parked us there and left, usually pulled onto a siding."
- List of railroad car manufacturers by country (French)
- History of the Ralston Steel Car Company, Columbus, Ohio
- Paquette Railway Solutions, dealing with rolling stock and power
- US Air Force Guard Car G-50 Strategic Air Command guard car, rebuilt from Army 1943 troop kitchen car #8750. Photographed in Portola, California at the Western Pacific Railroad Museum.
- Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Car.
- Guide to Railcars