Palembang is the capital city of the South Sumatra province in Indonesia. Palembang is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia, and has a history of being a capital of a maritime empire. Located on the Musi River banks on the east coast of southern Sumatra island, it has an area of 400.61 square kilometres and a population of 1,441,500. Palembang is the second-largest city in Sumatra after Medan and the seventh-largest city in Indonesia. The city hosted the 26th edition of Southeast Asian Games from 11 to 22 November 2011 along with Jakarta.
It was formerly the capital city of the Kingdom of Srivijaya, a powerful Malay kingdom, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. The earliest evidence of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in the year 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century, namely the Kedukan Bukit Inscription around Palembang in Sumatra, dated 683.
Palembang landmarks include the Ampera bridge and the Musi River, the latter of which divides the city into two, Seberang Ilir to the north and Seberang Ulu to the south. The Seberang Ilir is Palembang's economic and cultural centre and the Seberang Ulu is its political centre.
The city was once the capital of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, which controlled a large part of what is now Indonesia, Malaysia and Southern Thailand. In 1025, it was conquered by the Chola Empire (In the period of Emperor Rajendra Chola I) of southern India. Srivijaya's capital eventually moved northward to Jambi. Palembang is also the origin of Parameswara, founder of the Malacca Sultanate.
Kingdom of Srivijaya
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription, which is dated 682 CE, is the oldest inscription found in Palembang. The inscription tells of a king who acquires magical powers and leads a large military force over water and land, setting out from Tamvan delta, arriving at a place called "Matajap," and (in the interpretation of some scholars) founding the polity of Srivijaya. The "Matajap" of the inscription is believed to be Mukha Upang, a district of Palembang.
In the period 850 - 1025 A.D., Palembang prospered as a centre of trade between the East and West and as a center of Sanskrit and Buddhist learning. Students from China stopped in Palembang to study Sanskrit before continuing their studies in India.
In the year 990, an army from Kingdom of Medang in Java attacked Srivijaya. Palembang was sacked and the palace was looted. Chulamanivarmadeva, however, requested protection from China. By 1006, the invasion was finally repelled. In retaliation, Chulamanivarmadeva send his troops assisted King Wurawari of Luaram in his revolt against Medang. In subsequent battles, Medang Palace was destroyed and the royal family of Medang executed.
In 1068, King Rajendra I of the Chola Dynasty of India conquered what is now modern day Kedah from Srivijaya. Having lost many soldiers in the war and with its coffers almost empty due to the twenty-year disruption of trade. The reach of Srivijaya was diminished. Its territories began to free themselves from the suzerainty of Palembang and to establish many small kingdoms all over the former empire. There is some evidence that the capital of Srivijaya moved from Palembang to Jambi.
The Fall of Srivijaya
During the last days of Srivijaya empire, the center of power shifted to Malayu in Muaro Jambi area, Jambi, and later moved upstream to Dharmasraya. After the collapse of Srivijaya, there was no major political power to control the town, however some Malay nobility families remain in town. At this time, the last Srivijaya prince, Parameswara, emerged. He tried to revive the city as an independent center of commerce once again and breaking from Majapahit overlordship. Majapahit took this action as rebellion and sent massive punitive naval expedition to Palembang. Parameswara fled to Tumasik with Sang Nila Utama. There he killed the governor of the Tumasik Thai nationals, and when the Thai army attacked Tumasik, Parameswara and his followers moved to Malacca in the Malay Peninsula, and established the Kingdom of Malacca. Parameswara converted to Islam in order to marry the daughter of Pasai, and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. Malacca flourished in the 15th century, and Parameswara became the sole ruler of the Malacca Strait and waters around it.
After the fall of Palembang to Majapahit invasion, there was no major political power to control the town. The town was left in chaos and desolation. At that time in Palembang and the surrounding villages local militias forces began emerging, such as the Great Commander in the lower Yellow River Musi, The Sigentar Alam group in the hills, the Tuan Bosai on river upstream, Commander Gumay groups along the Bukit Barisan, and so on. In addition, some merchants from China made this city as their trade base, also inviting pirates from China. Orang laut also made Palembang as their home, and these rough sailors without government and authority has transformed Palembang as a pirate haven for many years to come. Chinese pirates are known to investing the area around Malaccan straits, until Cheng Ho naval expedition on behalf of Ming dynasty defeated these pirates.
Sultanate of Palembang
Destruction of Majapahit in Java indirectly influenced Sumatra. Several key figures behind the collapse of Majapahit were Raden Patah, Ario Dillah (Ario Damar), and Pati Unus, figures closely associated with Palembang. The Sultanate of Demak subsequently replaced Majapahit in Java. Sultanate of Palembang was established by Ki gede ing Suro, a Javanese nobles fleeing the Demak court intrique after the death of Trenggana Sultan of Demak. Palembang was made the center of a sultanate with Darussalam Mukmiminin Khalifatul susuhunan Sayyidu Abddurrahaman Faith as its first king. This kingdom formed from the merger of two cultures. The maritime heritage of the Sriwijaya and Majapahit combined to create the greatest agricultural and trade center of the Malay world at the time. One of the most famous king during this period was Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II, who won three battles against both Dutch and English forces.
In 1619 the VOC opened a trading post in Palembang. Although it was closed a few years later by Jan Pieterszoon Coen, some contact was maintained with the town. The VOC's Resident in Jambi ordered pepper from the traders of Palembang, who sailed to Batavia themselves to sell the pepper. Because of the low profit yield for the Company, Batavia asked the sultan for permission to reopen the trading post in the town. The contract with the sultan gave the VOC Resident authority over all foreign ships calling at the harbor of Palembang. This enabled the Company to guard against illicit trading. Despite these privileges, the Company was still dependent on the sultan, who decided whether the Resident's demands were acceptable or not.
In the 18th century Palembang supplied around 50,000 pounds of white pepper annually.
After the fall of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam, Palembang became a subordinate kingdom within the Dutch East Indies. The main victory of Dutch forces under de Kock occurred in 1821. Some of the sultans of surrendered states succeeding Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II tried to rebel against the Dutch. All attempts failed and resulted in the burning of imperial buildings.
After that Palembang was divided into two major prefectures, and settlements in Palembang were divided into regions and Ulu Ilir.
On 27 September 2005, the President of Indonesia declared Palembang to be the "City of Water Tour" on 27 September 2005. The President revealed that the city would increasingly be known for its water attractions, similar to other South East Asian cities such as Bangkok and Phnom Penh.
The city of Palembang in 2008 publicized its tourist attractions with the slogan "Visit Musi 2008". More recently, Palembang has drawn further international attention as one of the host cities of the SEA GAMES XXVI 2011.
Geographically, Palembang is located at 2°59'S 104°45'E. The total area of Palembang City is 102.47 km², with an average elevation of 8 meters above sea level. Location of Palembang is strategic because it passed by the road linking the Trans Sumatra between regions in the island of Sumatra. Palembang is split by the Musi River, which can be crossed over the Ampera Bridge, which serves as a means of transport and trade across the river.
Climate and topography
Palembang has a tropical rainforest climate with relatively high humidity and sometimes significant winds. Wind speeds range from 2.3 km / h to 4.5 km / hour. The temperature ranges from 23.4 to 31.7 degrees Celsius. Annual rainfall ranges from 2000 mm to 3000 mm. Humidity ranges from 75 to 89% with an average of 45% of annual sunshine. During its wettest months, the city's marshlands are routinely inundated. Average temperatures are nearly identical throughout the year in the city.
|Climate data for Palembang|
|Average high °C (°F)||29
|Average low °C (°F)||24
|Precipitation mm (inches)||240
Palembang is generally flat, with altitudes generally between an average of 0 to 20 m. Only a small portion of the land area of the city sees significant elevation, namely in the northern part of town. The type of soil in Palembang is layered alluvial soil. Clay and sand, which lie in the topmost layer, may contain petroleum.
- North side; with Fortress Base Village, the Village and Village Kenten Spinner, Coconut Talang District, District Banyuasin
- South side; with Lily Village Sub Inderalaya Ogan Ilir and District Muara Enim
- West side; with Sukajadi Village District Banyuasin Regency Coconut Gutters
- East side; the Central District Makmur Banyuasin I Banyuasin District
Palembang divided into 16 districts and 107 sub-districts:
- Ilir Timur I
- Ilir Timur II
- Ilir Barat I
- Ilir Barat II
- Seberang Ulu I
- Seberang Ulu II
- Bukit Kecil
- Bukit besar
- Alang-alang lebar
- Sematang Borang
Ethnicity and language
The local language of Palembang, Musi, belongs to the same group as Malay. There are also Palembang residents originating from other parts of South Sumatra. They have their own regional languages, such as Komering, Lahat, and Rawas. There are also people that came from outside South Sumatra. Most of them are Javanese, Chinese, Arab, Indian, Minangkabau, or Sundanese.
Palembang has networks of mini-bus routes for the main form of public transport and the new Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, Trans Musi as well.
- Corridor 1 : Bus stop below the Ilir part of Ampera Bridge - Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12)
- Corridor 2 : Perumnas Bus Station - PIM (Palembang Indah Mall)
- Corridor 3 : Plaju - PS Mall (Palembang Square Mall)
- Corridor 4 : Jakabaring - Karya Jaya Bus Station (Kertapati)
- Corridor 5 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) - Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport
- Corridor 6 : Pusri - Palembang Square (PS)
- Corridor 7 : Kenten - Dempo (Coming Soon in 2013)
- Corridor 8 : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) - Terminal Karya Jaya (Kertapati)
- Pangkalan Balai Corridor : Alang Alang Lebar Bus Station (KM 12) - Pangkalan Balai
- Indralaya Corridor : Terminal Karya Jaya - Indralaya
- Unsri Corridor : Unsri Bukit - Unsri Indralaya
Palembang also has a large number of taxi. The number keeps rising since the Pekan Olahraga Nasional 2004 and SEA Games 2011, which both were held in Palembang.
There are also traditional and speed boats that serve the people who live near the riverside. The traditional boats are called "Keteks" or sampan.
The city is served by Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport which has scheduled flights to many cities in Indonesia and also to Singapore by Silk Air and Kuala Lumpur by AirAsia. This airport also serves other cities around South Sumatra Province.
The Boom Baru Harbor is the main harbor of Palembang, it is located and also connected Palembang with Bangka-Belitung Islands Province.
Palembang also has three main harbours, Boom Baru Harbor (which is the main harbor of Palembang, located on the north shore of Musi River), 36 Ilir Harbor, and Tanjung Api-api Harbor. From here frequent ferries connect Palembang to Muntok Harbor in Bangka Island, Bangka-Belitung Islands Province and also to Batam Island.
Palembang's economy has been developed significantly since it became a host for a National Sporting Event in 2004. The city government has set a revenue target of IDR 3.5 billion from advertising alone.. Palembang was also one of hosts of the 2007 AFC Asian Cup.
Tourism and recreations
- Musi River, about 750 km along the river which divides the city into two parts, namely Palembang Seberang Ulu and Ilir opposite is the longest river in Sumatra. Since the first of the Musi River has become the economic lifeblood and the city of Palembang in South Sumatra Province. Along the banks of the river there are many attractions like the Ampera Bridge, Fort Religious Tourism, Museum of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II, Kemaro Island, 16 Ilir Market, home Raft, Pertamina's oil refineries, fertilizer plants PUSRI, beach Good Yellow, Musi II Bridge, Al Munawar Mosque, etc..
- Ampera Bridge, a magnificent bridge which crossed over 1177 meters above the Musi River that connects the area and Seberang Ulu Seberang Ilir Palembang is a city icon. The bridge was built in 1962 and was built using the spoils of Japan and Japanese experts.
- Great Mosque of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Palembang, Palembang is located in downtown, this mosque is the largest mosque in South Sumatra with a capacity of 15,000 pilgrims.
- Benteng Kuto Besak, situated on the banks of the Musi River and adjacent to Ampera Bridge, this fort is one of the Palembang Darussalam Sultanate of heritage buildings. Inside the fort there are the health office II Sriwijaya Military Command and hospitals. This fortress is the only fort in Indonesia and the stone-walled fortress eligible / defense that was built at his own expense for purposes of defense from enemy attack Europeans and not a hero named Europe.
- Mayor's Office Building, located in downtown, at first this building serves as a water tower because it serves to drain the water throughout the city so well known as the Office of Plumbing. Today this building serves as the Office of the Mayor of Palembang and there are spotlights on top of buildings that beautify the face of the city at night.
- Kambang Iwak Family Park, a lake situated in the tourist center of town, close to Palembang mayor's residence. On the banks of this lake there are many families and recreation arena crowded on holidays. Also in the middle of this lake there is a fountain that looks beautiful at night.
- Punti Kayu Tourism Forest, city jungle located about 6 miles from the city center with an area of 50 ha and since 1998 designated as protected forests. In this forest there is a family recreation area and a local shelter a group of monkeys: long-tail macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and monkey (Macaca nemistriana) under the Sumatran Pine wood (Pinus mercussi).
- Srivijaya archaeological park, the remnants of Sriwijaya site located on the banks of the River Musi. There is an inscription and stone relics, complex of ancient pond, artificial island and canals dated from the Srivijayan kingdom in this area. The Srivijaya Museum is located in this complex.
- Bukit Seguntang archaeological park, located in the hills west of Palembang city. In this place there are many relics and tombs of the ancient Malay-Srivijayan king and nobles.
- People's Struggle Monument, located in downtown, adjacent to the Great Mosque and Ampera Bridge. As its name in this building there are relics of history in the colonial period.
- Balaputradewa Museum, a museum that holds many objects - relics of Sriwijaya.
- Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum, located near the Bridge and Fort Ampera Religious Tourism and former royal palace is one of the relics of Palembang Darussalam. It poses a lot of objects - objects historic city of Palembang.
- Textile Museum, located on Merdeka Street museum keeps objects of textiles from all regions in South Sumatera Province.
- Tengkurep Crater
- Cheng Ho Mosque Palembang
- Kampung Kapitan
- Arab village
- Songket Craft Centre
- Kemaro island
- Shopping Malls:
- Palembang Indah Mall (PIM)
- Palembang Trade Center (PTC)
- Palembang Square (PS)
- International Plaza (IP)
- Rajawali Village (Under Construction)
- Centre Point (Under Construction)
Since ancient times, Palembang has been a cosmopolitan port city which absorbs neighboring, as well as foreign, cultures and influences. The influences and cultures of coastal Malay, inland Minangkabau, Javanese, Indian, Chinese, and Arab, has created a rich Palembang culture. Throughout its history, Palembang has attracted migrants from other regions in the archipelago, and has made this city as a multi-cultural city. Although today the city had lost its function as the major port city in the archipelago, the remnants of its heyday still evident in its culture. Most of its population was then adopted the culture of coastal Malays and Javanese. Even now it can be seen in its culture and language. Word such as "wong (person)" is an example of Javanese loanword in Palembang language. Also the Javanese knight and noble honorific titles, such as Raden Mas or Raden Ayu is used by Palembang nobles, the remnant of Palembang Sultanate courtly culture. The tombs of the Islamic heritage was not different in form and style with Islamic tombs in Java.
Art and culture of Palembang, among others:
- Kesenian Dul Muluk (traditional drama performances Palembang).
- Traditional dances such as Gending Sriwijaya, Tanggai and Tapak Tiga dances are usually held in wedding reception or performed to welcome and honor the guests.
- Regional Songs such as Dek Sangke, Cuk Mak Ilang, Pempek Lenjer, and Ribang Kemambang.
- Traditional House of Palembang is Limas House and House Raft.
- Ornamental boat festival and competition in the River Musi bidar.
Palembang also holds a variety of festivals every year, among them, "Sriwijaya Festival", held in June to commemorate Palembang's anniversary, Bidar and Ornamental Boat Festival celebrate Independence Day, Musi River Triboatton and various festivals commemorating the Islamic New Year, Month of Ramadan, and New Year's Day .
Palembang is famous for its local cuisine called pempek Palembang. It is a fishcake served in sweet and sour sauce called kuah cuko. Another Palembang signature dishes are tekwan, model, mie celor, laksan and lakso, and also pindang patin (pangasius in sweet and sour soup).
Jakabaring Sport City
Jakabaring Sport City ia a sport complex located 5 kilometers southeast from Palembang city center, across Musi river through Ampera Bridge in Jakabaring, Seberang Ulu I area. It was the main venue of 2011 Southeast Asian Games. Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium, one of the largest stadium in Indonesia, is located within this complex. The complex consist of Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium football field, Dempo sport hall, Ranau sport hall, Athletic stadium, Aquatic center, Baseball and Softball field, Shooting range, Athlete lodging, Artificial lake for outdoor water sports (rowing, water ski, dragon boat) and Golf course.
Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium was built in view of the XVI National Sports Week in 2004. The stadium is located in the area Jakabaring, in the southern part of Palembang. The shape of the stadium was inspired by the form screen terkembang boat and given a name based on the greatness of the kingdom of Srivijaya, based in Palembang in the past. In the 40,000-seat stadium two matches were staged in the AFC Asian Cup continued in 2007, the Group D qualifier between Saudi Arabia and Bahrain as well as grabbing a third place between South Korea and Japan. The 2011 Southeast Asian Games will be held at Palembang along with Jakarta in November, 2011. The opening and closing ceremonies will be deliver at the Sriwijaya Stadium.
Sriwijaya Football Club, which is commonly referred to simply as Sriwijaya, is an Indonesian football club based in Palembang, Province of South Sumatra, Indonesia. They are now playing in Djarum Indonesian Super League.
Although being a football representative from the Province of South Sumatra, Sriwijaya was actually founded in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, as Persijatim in 1976. Because of some financial reasons, the club decided to move to Solo City and become Solo Football Club. The financial condition, however, did not improve until the Province of South Sumatra bought the ownership of the team and renamed the team Sriwijaya Football Club.
The team crest is a circular logo bearing the team motto Sumatera Selatan Bersatu Teguh, which means that the team can be used as one means to realize the unity of the round from all communities in South Sumatra province, and is also the province's motto.
Universities in Palembang:
- University of Sriwijaya. University of Sriwijaya is currently ranked 15th Best University in the Indonesian version of Webometrics January 2010. Sriwijaya University ranking in the rating of World Class University Webometrics version continued to increase since the January 2009 edition (ranked 37th), edition of July 2009 (ranked 29th), and the edition of January 2010 (ranked 15th). For the Sumatran region, Sriwijaya University ranked first, followed by the University of Lampung (Unila), North Sumatra University (USU) and the University of Riau (UNRI).
- Polytechnic Sriwijaya Palembang
- State Islamic Institute Raden Fattah Palembang
- School of Journalism Indonesia. First Journalism School in Indonesia, SJI was inaugurated by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono at the top of National Press Day (HPN) in Palembang, 9 February 2010. School of Journalism is the first international journalism school in Indonesia under the auspices of UNESCO This school is addressed to who wants to understand the world of Journalism, this is temporarily sat Training Kepegawaiaan South Sumatra Province.
- Politeknik Akamigas palembang
- Universitas Bina Darma
- Universitas Indo Global Mandiri
- Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang
- Universitas Syahyakirti
- Universitas IBA
- Universitas Tamansiswa
- Universitas PGRI Palembang
- Universitas Kader Bangsa
- Universitas Tridinanti
Top high schools in Palembang:
- Sekolah Kusuma Bangsa (Kumbang)
- Sekolah Internasional Harapan
- Sekolah Palembang Harapan (SPH)
- SMA Xaverius 1 Palembang
- SMA Xaverius 3 Palembang
- SMA Negeri 5 Palembang
- SMA Plus Negeri 17 Palembang
- SMA Negeri 1 Palembang
- SMA Negeri 21 Palembang
Top junior schools in Palembang:
- SMP Negeri 1 palembang
- MTS Negari 1 palembang
All national television media broadcasts in Palembang. TVRI, and other private sector channels based in Jakarta include RCTI, SCTV, TPI, ANTV, Indosiar, Metro TV, Trans TV, Trans 7, TVOne, Global TV Sky TV.
Another angle of Ampera Bridge, Palembang.
Palembang Great Mosque
Ampera Bridge, Palembang
Palembang, June 1821
- Belgorod, Russia
- Moscow Oblast, Russia
- Den Haag, Netherlands
- Venice, Italy
- Manchester, United Kingdom
- "Palembang". Atlas of Mutual Heritage. Atlas of Mutual Heritage. 2009. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- "Punti Kayu: Sumatran Jungle Tours In Palembang, South Sumatera". 1 December 2011.