|Central Board of Film Certification|
|Parent organization||Ministry of Information and Broadcasting|
|Budget||Rs. 6.9 crore (2011)|
The Central Board of Film Certification (often referred to as the Censor Board) is a statutory censorship and classification body under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. It is tasked with "regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act 1952". It assigns certifications to films, television shows, television ads, and publications for exhibition, sale or hire in India. Films can be publicly exhibited in India only after they are certified by the Board.
As the first film in India (Raja Harishchandra) was produced in 1913 by Dadasaheb Phalke, Indian Cinematograph Act was passed and came into effect only in 1920. Censor Boards (as they were called then) were placed under police chiefs in cities of Madras (now Chennai), Bombay (now Mumbai), Calcutta (now Kolkata), Lahore (now in Pakistan) and Rangoon (now Yangon in Burma). Regional censors were independent. After Independence autonomy of regional censors was abolished and they were brought under the Bombay Board of Film Censors. With implementation of Cinematograph Act, 1952, the board was unified and reconstituted, as the Central Board of Film Censors. Cinematograph (Certification) Rules were revised in 1983 and since then the Central Board of Film Censors became known as the Central Board of Film Certification.
The CBFC currently issues the following certificates:
|U||Universal||Unrestricted Public Exhibition throughout India, suitable for all age groups. Films under this category should not upset children over 4. This rating is similar to the MPAA's G and PG and the BBFC's U and PG ratings.
Such films may contain educational, social or family-oriented themes. Films under this category may also contain fantasy violence and/or mild bad language.
|UA||Parental Guidance||All ages admitted, but it is advised that children below 12 be accompanied by a parent as the theme or content may be considered intense or inappropriate for young children. This rating is similar to the MPAA's PG and PG-13 and the BBFC's PG and 12A ratings.
Films under this category may contain mature themes, sexual references, mild sex scenes, violence with brief gory images and/or infrequent use of crude language.
|A||Adults Only||Restricted to adult audiences (18 years or over). This rating is similar to the MPAA's NC-17 and the BBFC's 18 ratings.
Films under this category may contain adult/disturbing themes, frequent crude language, brutal violence with blood and gore, strong sex scenes and/or scenes of drug abuse which is considered unsuitable for minors.
|S||Restricted to any special class of persons||This rating signifies that the film is meant for a specialised audience, such as doctors.|
Additionally, V/U, V/UA, V/A are used for video releases with U, UA and A carrying the same meaning as above. UA and S certificates were introduced in 1983.
Composition and Leadership
The Board consist of non-official members and a Chairperson (all of whom are appointed by Central Government). Bharatnatyam dancer, Leela Samson presently presides the Board after Sharmila Tagore, who was the longest continuous running Chairperson in the history. Samson is now the 26th Chairperson after the Board's establishment.
The Board functions with its headquarters at Mumbai. It has nine Regional offices each at:
- New Delhi
The Regional Offices are assisted in the examination of films by Advisory Panels. The members of the panels are nominated by Central Government by drawing people from different walks of life for a period of 2 years.
Chairpersons of the CBFC
|1||C. S. Aggarwal||15 January 1951||14 June 1954|
|2||B. D. Mirchandani||15 June 1954||9 June 1955|
|3||M. D. Bhatt||10 June 1955||21 November 1959|
|4||D. L. Kothari||22 November 1959||24 March 1960|
|5||B. D. Mirchandani||25 March 1960||1 November 1960|
|6||D. L. Kothari||2 November 1960||22 April 1965|
|7||B. P. Bhatt||23 April 1965||22 April 1968|
|8||R. P. Nayak||31 April 1968||15 November 1969|
|9||M. V. Desai||12 December 1969||19 October 1970|
|10||R. Srinivasan||20 October 1970||15 November 1971|
|11||Virendra Vyas||11 February 1972||30 June 1976|
|12||K. L. Khandpur||1 July 1976||31 January 1981|
|13||Hrishikesh Mukherjee||1 February 1981||10 August 1982|
|14||Aparna Mohile||11 August 1982||14 March 1983|
|15||Sharad Upasani||15 March 1983||9 May 1983|
|16||Surresh Mathur||10 May 1983||7 July 1983|
|17||Vikram Singh||8 July 1983||19 February 1989|
|18||Moreshwar Vanmali||20 February 1989||25 April 1990|
|19||B. P. Singhal||25 April 1990||1 April 1991|
|20||Shakti Samanta||1 April 1991||25 June 1998|
|21||Asha Parekh||25 June 1998||25 September 2001|
|22||Vijay Anand||26 September 2001||19 July 2002|
|23||Arvind Trivedi||20 July 2002||16 October 2003|
|24||Anupam Kher||16 October 2003||13 October 2004|
|25||Sharmila Tagore||13 October 2004||31 March 2011|
|26||Leela Samson||1 April 2011||Till Date|
- "Background". CBFC Website. Central Board of Film Certification. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- Dhwan, Himanshi (29 March 2011). "Danseuse Leela Samson is new Censor Board chief". Times of India. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- IndiaTimes Movies staff reporter (22 July 2002). timesofindia. indiatimes. com/2002 July 22/news-interviews/27308006_1_vijay-anand-cbfc-chairman-films "Vijay Anand Quits Censor Board". Times of India. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- rediff. com Entertainment Bureau Staff reporter (8 October 2003). rediff. com/movies/2003/oct/08kher. htm "Anupam Kher is new chief of censors". Rediff Movies. rediff. com. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- Indo-Asian News Service (16 October 2004). indiaglitz. com/channels/hindi/article/10963. html "Sharmila Tagore replaces Kher". IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 9 January 2012.