Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period. The Fifteenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to 1550 BC.
Known rulers of the Fifteenth Dynasty are as follows:
|Sakir-Har||Named as an early Hyksos king on a door jamb found at Avaris. Regnal order uncertain.|
|Apophis||c. 1590? BC-1550 BC|
|Khamudi||c. 1550-1540 BC|
The Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty, ruled from Avaris, without control of the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the north-east. The names and order of kings is uncertain. The Turin Kinglist indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the Fifteenth Dynasty. (line X.21 of the cited web link clearly provides this summary for the dynasty: "6 kings functioning 100+X years.") The surviving traces on the X figure appears to give the figure 8 which suggests that the summation should be read as 6 kings ruling 108 years.
Number of kings named Apepi
Some scholars argue there were two Apophis kings named Apepi I and Apepi II, but this is primarily due to the fact there are two known prenomens for this king: Awoserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt maintains in his study of the Second Intermediate Period that these prenomens all refer to one man: Apepi I who ruled Egypt for 40+X years. This is also supported by the fact that this king employed a third prenomen during his reign: Nebkhepeshre. Apophis likely employed several different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign. This scenario is not unprecedented since later kings including the famous Ramesses II and Seti II are known to have used two different prenomens in their own reign.
- Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 481. ISBN 0-19-815034-2 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Turin Kinglist Accessed July 26, 1006
- Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C." by Museum Tuscalanum Press. 1997. p.125
- Kings of the Second Intermediate Period University College London; scroll down to the 15th dynasty