Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι 'to lead out') is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, especially a religious text. Traditionally the term was used primarily for exegesis of the Bible; however, in contemporary usage it has broadened to mean a critical explanation of any text, and the term "Biblical exegesis" is used for greater specificity.
Exegesis includes a wide range of critical disciplines: textual criticism is the investigation into the history and origins of the text, but exegesis may include the study of the historical and cultural backgrounds for the author, the text, and the original audience. Other analysis includes classification of the type of literary genres present in the text, and an analysis of grammatical and syntactical features in the text itself.
The terms exegesis and hermeneutics have been used interchangeably. However, hermeneutics is a more widely defined discipline of interpretation theory: hermeneutics includes the entire framework of the interpretive process, encompassing all forms of communication: written, verbal and nonverbal, while exegesis focuses primarily on the written text.
One who practices exegesis is called an exegete (from Greek ἐξηγητής). The plural of exegesis is exegeses. Adjectives are exegetic or exegetical (e.g., exegetical commentaries). In Biblical exegesis, the opposite of exegesis (to draw out) is eisegesis (to draw in), in the sense of an eisegetic commentator "importing" or "drawing in" his or her own purely subjective interpretations into the text, unsupported by the text itself. Eisegesis is often used as a derogatory term.
Views of Christian exegesis
Different Christians have different views on how to perform Biblical Exegesis. The two most common views are revealed and rational.
- Revealed exegesis considers that the Holy Spirit (God) inspired the authors of the scriptural texts, and so the words of those texts convey a divine revelation. In this view of exegesis, the principle of sensus plenior applies - that because of its divine authorship, the Bible has a "fuller meaning" than its human authors intended or could have foreseen.
- Rational exegesis bases its operation on the idea that the authors have their own inspiration (in this sense, synonymous with "artistic inspiration"), so their works are completely and utterly a product of the social environment and human intelligence of their authors.
A common published form of a biblical exegesis is known as a 'Bible commentary' and typically takes the form of an encyclopedia-like set of books each of which are devoted to the exposition of one or two books of the Bible, in the order they appear in the Bible (although often published over a decade or longer, out of order). Long books or those that contain much material either for theological or historical-critical speculation, such as Genesis or Psalms, may be split over 2 or 3 volumes as a matter of course, some, such as the or the Four Gospels may be multiple- or single-volume, while short books such as the deuterocanonical portions of Daniel, Esther, and the Jeremiah (i.e. Book of Susanna, Prayer of Azariah, Bel and the Dragon, Additions to Esther, Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah), or the Pastoral or Johannine epistles are often condensed into one volume.
The form of each book may be identical or allow for variations in methodology between the many authors which collaborate to write a full commentary. Each book's commentary generally consists of a background and introductory section, followed by detailed commentary of the book in a pericope-by-pericope or verse-by-verse basis (split up either into chapters or smaller units of text). Before the 20th century, a commentary would be written by a sole author, but today a publishing board will commission a team of scholars to write a commentary, with each volume being divided out among them. A single commentary will generally attempt to give a coherent and unified view on the Bible as a whole, for example, from a Catholic or Reformed (Calvinist) perspective, or a commentary that focuses on textual criticism or historical criticism from a secular point of view. However, each volume will inevitably lean toward the personal emphasis of its author, and within any commentaries there may be great variety in the depth, accuracy, and critical or theological strength of each volume.
Catholic centres of biblical exegesis include:
- the École Biblique of Jerusalem founded in 1890 by the Dominican order's Marie-Joseph Lagrange. The school became embroiled in the modernist crisis, and had to curtail its New Testament activities until after Vatican II
- the Pontifical Biblical Institute of Rome practises exegesis in a more canonical way
Jewish exegetes have the title mefarshim מפרשים (commentators).
The Midrash is a homiletic method of exegesis and a compilation of homiletic teachings or commentaries on the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), a Biblical exegesis of the Pentateuch and its paragraphs related to the Law or Torah, which also forms an object of analysis. It comprises the legal and ritual Halakha, the collective body of Jewish laws, and exegesis of the written Law; and the non-legalistic Aaggadah, a compendium of Rabbinic homilies of the parts of the Pentateuch not connected with Law.
Biblical interpretation by the Tannaim and the Amoraim, which may be best designated as scholarly interpretations of the Midrash, was a product of natural growth and of great freedom in the treatment of the words of the Bible. However, it proved an obstacle to further development when, endowed with the authority of a sacred tradition in the Talmud and in the Midrash (collections edited subsequently to the Talmud), it became the sole source for the interpretation of the Bible among later generations. Traditional literature contains explanations that are in harmony with the wording and the context. It reflects evidence of linguistic sense, judgment, and an insight into the peculiarities and difficulties of the Biblical text. But side by side with these elements of a natural and simple Bible exegesis, of value even today, the traditional literature contains an even larger mass of expositions removed from the actual meaning of the text.
- Halakha and Aggadah
In the halakhic as well as in the haggadic exegesis the expounder endeavored not so much to seek the original meaning of the text as to find authority in some Bible passage for concepts and ideas, rules of conduct and teachings, for which he wished to have a Biblical foundation. To this were added, on the one hand, the belief that the words of the Bible had many meanings, and, on the other, the importance attached to the smallest portion, the slightest peculiarity of the text. Because of this move towards particularities the exegesis of the Midrash strayed further and further away from a natural and common-sense interpretation.
Midrash exegesis was largely in the nature of homiletics, expounding the Bible not in order to investigate its actual meaning and to understand the documents of the past. This was done to find religious edification, moral instruction, and sustenance for the thoughts and feelings of the present. The contrast between explanation of the literal sense and the Midrash, that did not follow the words, was recognized by the Tannaim and the Amoraim, although their idea of the literal meaning of a Biblical passage may not be allowed by more modern standards. The above-mentioned tanna, Ishmael b. Elisha said, rejecting an exposition of Eliezer b. Hyrcanus: "Truly, you say to Scripture, 'Be silent while I am expounding!'" (Sifra on Lev. xiii. 49).
Tannaitic exegesis distinguishes principally between the actual deduction of a thesis from a Bible passage as a means of proving a point, and the use of such a passage as a mere mnemonic device – a distinction that was also made in a different form later in the Babylonian schools. The Babylonian Amoraim were the first to use the expression "Peshaṭ" ("simple" or face value method) to designate the primary sense, contrasting it with the "Drash," the Midrashic exegesis. These two terms were later on destined to become important features in the history of Jewish Bible exegesis. In Babylonia was formulated the important principle that the Midrashic exegesis could not annul the primary sense. This principle subsequently became the watchword of commonsense Bible exegesis. How little it was known or recognized may be seen from the admission of Kahana, a Babylonian amora of the fourth century, that while at 18 years of age he had already learned the whole Mishnah, he had only heard of that principle a great many years later (Shab 63a). Kahana's admission is characteristic of the centuries following the final redaction of the Talmud. The primary meaning is no longer considered, but it becomes more and more the fashion to interpret the text according to the meaning given to it in traditional literature. The ability and even the desire for original investigation of the text succumbed to the overwhelming authority of the Midrash. It was, therefore, providential that, just at the time when the Midrash was paramount, the close study of the text of the Bible, at least in one direction, was pursued with rare energy and perseverance by the Masorites, who set themselves to preserving and transmitting the pronunciation and correct reading of the text. By introducing punctuation (vowel-points and accents) into the Biblical text, in the seventh century, they supplied that protecting hedge which, according to Rabbi Akiba's saying, the Masorah was to be for the words of the Bible. Punctuation, on the one hand, protected the tradition from being forgotten, and, on the other, was the precursor of an independent Bible science to be developed in a later age.
The Mikra, the fundamental part of the national science, was the subject of the primary instruction. It was also divided into the three historic groups of the books of the Bible: the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa, called in traditional Hebrew attribution the Torah (the Law or Teaching), the Nevi'im (the Prophets) and the Kethuvim (the Writings) respectively. The intelligent reading and comprehension of the text, arrived at by a correct division of the sentences and words, formed the course of instruction in the Bible. The scribes were also required to know the Targum, the Aramaic translation of the text. The Targum made possible an immediate comprehension of the text, but was continuously influenced by the exegesis taught in the schools. The synagogues were preeminently the centers for instruction in the Bible and its exegesis. The reading of the Biblical text, which was combined with that of the Targum, served to widen the knowledge of the scholars learned in the first division of the national science. The scribes found the material for their discourses, which formed a part of the synagogue service, in the second division of the several branches of the tradition. The Haggadah, the third of these branches, especially furnished the material for the sermon.
Jewish exegesis did not finish with the redaction of the Talmud, but continued during ancient times, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; it remains a subject of study today. Jews have centres for exegetic studies around the world, in each community: they consider exegesis an important tool for the understanding of the Scriptures.
The Mimamsa school of Indian philosophy, also known as Pūrva Mīmāṃsā ("prior" inquiry, also Karma-Mīmāṃsā), in contrast to Uttara Mīmāṃsā ("posterior" inquiry, also Brahma-Mīmāṃsā), is strongly concerned with textual exegesis, and consequently gave rise to the study of philology and the philosophy of language. Its notion of shabda "speech" as indivisible unity of sound and meaning (signifier and signified) is due to Bhartrhari (7th century).
Tafsir (Arabic: تفسير, tafsīr, "interpretation") is the Arabic word for exegesis or commentary, usually of the Qur'an. An author of tafsīr is a mufassir (Arabic: 'مُفسر, mufassir, plural: Arabic: مفسرون, mufassirūn).
Tafsir does not include esoteric or mystical interpretations, which are covered by the related word Ta'wil. Shi'ite organization Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project cites the prophet Muhammad as stating that the Qur'an has an inner meaning, and that this inner meaning conceals an even deeper inner meaning, in support of this view. While adherents of Sufism and Ilm al-Kalam concur with the Shi'a, most mainstream Sunni Muslims do not.
Exegesis in a secular context
Several universities, including the Sorbonne in Paris, Leiden University, and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (Free University of Brussels), put exegesis in a secular context, next to exegesis in a religious tradition. Secular exegesis is an element of the study of religion. At Australian universities, the exegesis is part of practice-based doctorate projects. It is a scholarly text accompanying a film, literary text, etc. produced by the PhD. candidate.
- Traina, Robert A. (1985). Methodical Bible Study. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Francis Asbury Press. ISBN 978-0-310-31230-7 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- see also chapter 3.2 in Peter M. Scharf, The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian Philosophy (1996)
- "al-Baydawi's "Anwar al-Tanzil wa Asrar al-Ta'wil" with Frontispiece". World Digital Library. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, The Teachings of the Qur'an.
- Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE), Section des Sciences Religieuses
- Leiden Institute for the Study of Religions (LISOR)
- Centre Interdisciplinaire d'Etude des Religions et de la Laïcité (CIERL)
- Krauth, Nigel (2011). "Evolution of the exegesis: the radical trajectory of the creative writing doctorate in Australia". Text: Journal of writing and writing courses 15 (1).
- Alexander, T. Desmond; Brian S Rosner (2000). New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Leicester: Inter-Varsity. ISBN 0-8308-1438-8 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Peter Barenboim, "Biblical Roots of Separation of Powers", Moscow : Letny Sad, 2005, ISBN 5-94381-123-0 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK], http://lccn.loc.gov/2006400578
- Bock, Darrell L; Buist M. Fanning (2006). Interpreting the New Testament Text: Introduction to the Art and Science of Exegesis. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books. ISBN 1-58134-408-2 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Corley, Bruce; Steve Lemke, Grant Lovejoy (2002). Biblical Hermeneutics: A Comprehensive Introduction to Interpreting Scripture. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman & Holman. ISBN 0-8054-2492-X [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- De La Torre, Miguel A., (2002) Reading the Bible from the Margins, Maryknoll: New York: Orbis Books. ISBN 1-57075-410-1 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK]. Missing or empty
- Doriani, Daniel (1996). Getting the message : a plan for interpreting and applying the Bible. Phillipsburg New Jersey: P&R Pub. ISBN 978-0-87552-238-8 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Evans, John (2010). A Guide to Biblical Commentaries & Reference Works: for students and pastors. Oakland, Tennessee: Doulos Resources. ISBN 978-0-9828715-6-0 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Fee, Gordon D.; Douglas Stuart (2003-11-01). How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth (3 Revised ed.). Zondervan. p. 288. ISBN 0-310-24604-0 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Fee, Gordon D (2001). To What End Exegesis?: Essays Textual, Exegetical, and Theological. Grand Rapids, Michigan; Cambridge, UK: W.B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-4925-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Hendricks, Howard G. (1991). Living by the Book. Chicago: Moody Press. p. 349. ISBN 0-8024-0743-9 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Kaiser, Walter C; Moisés Silva (2007). Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics: The Search for Meaning (Revised and expanded edition ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-27951-8 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Kaiser, Walter C (1998). Toward an Exegetical Theology: Biblical Exegesis for Preaching and Teaching (1st paperback edition ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. p. 268. ISBN 0-8010-2197-9 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Klein, William W. William Wade; Craig Blomberg, Robert L Hubbard, Kermit Allen Ecklebarger (1993). Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Dallas, Texas: Word Pub. ISBN 0-8499-0774-8 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Glynn, John (2003). Commentary & Reference Survey: A Comprehensive Guide to Biblical and Theological Resources. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel Academic & Professional. ISBN 0-8254-2736-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Hayes, John Haralson; Carl R Holladay (2007). Biblical Exegesis: A Beginner's Handbook. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22775-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Osborne, Grant R (2006). The Hermeneutical Spiral: A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0-8308-2826-5 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Ryken, Leland (1984). How to read the Bible as literature. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Academie Books. ISBN 978-0-310-39021-3 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Traina, Robert (1952). Methodical Bible study : a new approach to hermeneutics. Ridgefield Park, New Jersey; New York: [distributed by] Biblical Seminary in New York.
- VanGemeren, Willem (1997). New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Pub. House. ISBN 0-310-48170-8 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Wald, Oletta (2002). The new joy of discovery in Bible study (Newly revised ed.). Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. ISBN 978-0-8066-4429-5 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Zuck, Roy B (1991). Basic Bible Interpretation. Wheaton, Illinois: Victor Books. p. 324. ISBN 0-89693-819-0 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Rightly Divided: Readings in Biblical Hermeneutics. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel Publications. 1996. p. 320. ISBN 0-8254-4099-8 [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK].
- Bertholet and A. Meyer, article "Bibelwissenschaft" in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Tübingen, 1909).
- Diestel, Geschichte des Alten Testaments in der chrislichen Kirche (Jena, 1869)
- Farrar, The History of Interpretation (London, 1886)
- Fürst, Bibliotheca Judaica (Leipzig, 1863)
- Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen (Breslau, 1857)
- Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretic Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible (London, 1897)
- Hody, De Bibliorum Textibus (Oxford, 1705)
- Nestle, Einführung in das griechische Neue Testament (Leipzig, 1897, 1909)
- Pfleiderer, Das Urchristenum (Berlin, 1886, 1902)
- Rosenmüller, Historia Interpretationis Librorum Sacrorum in Ecclesia Christiana (Hildsburgshausen, 1795–1814)
- Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (London, 1900)
- Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebraica (Jena, 1715–33), continued by Köcher as Nova Bibliotheca hebraica (Jena, 1783–84)
- Zöckler, Handbuch der theologischen Wissenschaften Nördlingen, 1890)
- Exegesis of the Hebrew Scriptures By Overall Context and Convergence of Verses From Different Places
- Biblical Interpretation and Application Reading Room: Extensive online resources for biblical exegesis (Tyndale Seminary)
- Basic Rules for New Testament Exegesis by Brian Knowles
- Inerrancy and New Testament Exegesis by R. T. France
- A type of Biblical Exegesis called arcing
- VBVBC.org: Website where visitors can give their personal Bible commentary on all Bible verses
- Biblical Exegesis at Catholic Encyclopedia
- Zoroastrian exegesis from Encyclopædia Iranica